FTP服务器搭建

ubuntu-vsftpd服务器搭建 阿里云ECS-FTP服务器搭建

usermod -s /sbin/nologin testuser # 用户不可以ssh连接

需求

  • 不允许匿名用户访问
  • 不允许用户返回上级目录
  • 用户登录到自己的目录中

注意

  • 目录的权限不能太大 标准 755
  • 阿里云[安全组规则]

chroot_list_enable 与 chroot_local_user

  • 当 chroot_list_enable=yes,chroot_local_user=yes时,在/etc/vsftpd/chroot_list文件 中列出的用户,可以切换到上级目录;未在文件中列出的用户,不能切换到站点根目录的上级目录。
  • 当 chroot_list_enable=yes,chroot_local_user=no时,在/etc/vsftpd/chroot_list文件中 列出的用户,不能切换到站点根目录的上级目录;未在文件中列出的用户,可以切换到上级目录。
  • 当 chroot_list_enable=no,chroot_local_user=yes时,所有用户均不能切换到上级目录。
  • 当 chroot_list_enable=no,chroot_local_user=no时,所有用户均可以切换到上级目录。
  • 当用户不允许切 换到上级目录时,登录后ftp站点的根目录“/”是该ftp账户的主目录,即文件的系统的/var/ftp目录

安装

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install vsftpd # 安装服务
$ sudo vsftpd -v # 查看版本号

配置

问题记录

ubuntu启用了PAM: vsftp时需要用到 /etc/pam.d/vsftpd 这个文件 因此除了匿名用户外本地用户无法登录。所以只要删除了就可以了

阿里被动模式端口配置

# 详细见[资料2]
pasv_enable=YES
pasv_min_port=61001
pasv_max_port=62000 # 在阿里云安全规则中添加 61001/62000
pasv_address=120.79.22.112 # 替换成自己服务器IP

最总修改后的配置

# Example config file /etc/vsftpd.conf
#
# The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file
# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.
# Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.
#
# READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.
# Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd's
# capabilities.
#
#
# Run standalone?  vsftpd can run either from an inetd or as a standalone
# daemon started from an initscript.
listen=YES
#
# This directive enables listening on IPv6 sockets. By default, listening
# on the IPv6 "any" address (::) will accept connections from both IPv6
# and IPv4 clients. It is not necessary to listen on *both* IPv4 and IPv6
# sockets. If you want that (perhaps because you want to listen on specific
# addresses) then you must run two copies of vsftpd with two configuration
# files.
listen_ipv6=NO
#
# Allow anonymous FTP? (Disabled by default).
anonymous_enable=NO
#
# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.
local_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.
write_enable=YES
#
# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,
# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd's)
#local_umask=022
#
# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only
# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will
# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.
#anon_upload_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create
# new directories.
#anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES
#
# Activate directory messages - messages given to remote users when they
# go into a certain directory.
dirmessage_enable=YES
#
# If enabled, vsftpd will display directory listings with the time
# in  your  local  time  zone.  The default is to display GMT. The
# times returned by the MDTM FTP command are also affected by this
# option.
use_localtime=YES
#
# Activate logging of uploads/downloads.
xferlog_enable=YES
#
# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).
connect_from_port_20=YES
#
# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by
# a different user. Note! Using "root" for uploaded files is not
# recommended!
#chown_uploads=YES
#chown_username=whoever
#
# You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown
# below.
xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log
#
# If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format.
# Note that the default log file location is /var/log/xferlog in this case.
#xferlog_std_format=YES
#
# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.
#idle_session_timeout=600
#
# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.
#data_connection_timeout=120
#
# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the
# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.
#nopriv_user=ftpsecure
#
# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not
# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,
# however, may confuse older FTP clients.
#async_abor_enable=YES
#
# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore
# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII
# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.
# Beware that on some FTP servers, ASCII support allows a denial of service
# attack (DoS) via the command "SIZE /big/file" in ASCII mode. vsftpd
# predicted this attack and has always been safe, reporting the size of the
# raw file.
# ASCII mangling is a horrible feature of the protocol.
#ascii_upload_enable=YES
#ascii_download_enable=YES
#
# You may fully customise the login banner string:
ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.
#
# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently
# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.
#deny_email_enable=YES
# (default follows)
#banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd.banned_emails
#
# You may restrict local users to their home directories.  See the FAQ for
# the possible risks in this before using chroot_local_user or
# chroot_list_enable below.
#chroot_local_user=YES
#
#root_local_user=NO# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home
# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of
# users to NOT chroot().
# (Warning! chroot'ing can be very dangerous. If using chroot, make sure that
# the user does not have write access to the top level directory within the
# chroot)
local_root=/var/www/$USER 
user_sub_token=$USER
#local_root=/var/www/test
#local_root=/var/www
#local_root=/var/ftp/pub
#local_root=/var/www/bb
chroot_local_user=NO
chroot_list_enable=YES
allow_writeable_chroot=YES
# (default follows)
chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list
#
# You may activate the "-R" option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by
# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large
# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as "ncftp" and "mirror" assume
# the presence of the "-R" option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.
#ls_recurse_enable=YES
#
# Customization
#
# Some of vsftpd's settings don't fit the filesystem layout by
# default.
#
# This option should be the name of a directory which is empty.  Also, the
# directory should not be writable by the ftp user. This directory is used
# as a secure chroot() jail at times vsftpd does not require filesystem
# access.
secure_chroot_dir=/var/run/vsftpd/empty
#
# This string is the name of the PAM service vsftpd will use.
pam_service_name=vsftpd
#
# This option specifies the location of the RSA certificate to use for SSL
# encrypted connections.
rsa_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
rsa_private_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
ssl_enable=NO

#pasv_enable=YES
pasv_min_port=61001
pasv_max_port=62000
pasv_address=120.79.22.112

#
# Uncomment this to indicate that vsftpd use a utf8 filesystem.
#utf8_filesystem=YES

参考资料

资料1-FTP客户端无法连接
资料2-阿里云安装 vsftpd 添加被动模式
资料3-Linux实例搭建FTP站点
资料4-Limit FTP access only to the /var/www with vsftpd
资料5-ubuntu 下的ftp详细配置
资料6-vsftp中控制用户是否允许切换到上级目录

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